Doctor of Medicine Program as a response to global call for Integrative Health Care and Transformative Education
The BU MD Program is Integrative Health Care in action. It is integrative in the sense that there will be multi-disciplinary (inter- and trans-professional) and non-hierarchical teams relating with the patients and families, covering the preventive/promotive/rehabilitative aspects of healing (concerned with body/mind/spirit) more than curing, using a blend of evidence-based conventional and complementary/alternative therapies, and recognizing the innate capacity of patients to heal themselves. The learners themselves will go into self-healing practices with emphasis on nutrition, exercise and stress management. Thus, other than the high-tech disease-oriented tertiary care of the DOH’s Bicol Regional Teaching and Training Hospital (BRTTH) and other learning/service facilities, there shall be high-touch patient-centered care in the application of the principles of Integrative Health Care.
Master in Public Administration Major in Health Emergency and Disaster Management
In response to the unique need of the region, there is an on-going Master in Public Administration Program, major in Health Emergency and Disaster Management being offered by the Graduate School. During the workshop on Curriculum Development in October, 2012, there was a consensus that the MPA Program be incorporated into the MD Program. Thus, after five years, the graduates will be Doctor of Medicine with a Master in Public Administration degrees.
The Doctor of Medicine program is a 5-year program including Medical Internship. The first three years will be devoted to learning basic and clinical medical sciences, while the last two years is devoted for clinical internship. While learners are being developed into competent clinical practitioners, they are also being trained as health managers with the inclusion of the parallel track on Master in Public Administration major in Health Emergencies and Disaster Management.
The BU Medical Curriculum can generally be described as:
- Transformative and responsive to national and global health development
- Technology Based
The College of Medicine will follow a five-year medical curriculum program. The curriculum is based on the Medical School’s goal of producing a physician who will be able to competently perform, foremost, the role of health care provider and also that of a teacher/academician, researcher, administrator/manager, and social mobilizer. The competencies are adopted from the Association of Philippine Medical Colleges and the specialty societies. Also, a comprehensive competency analysis has been conducted to generate specific competencies that have become the basis of the integrated medical curriculum. The different competencies considered in the medical curriculum were benchmarked from topnotch universities here and abroad.
Basic science knowledge is best taught in the context of how it will be used in the future. In medical education, that future context is clinical practice. The BU medical curriculum is integrated horizontally and vertically in all year levels. For the first year program, basic sciences are integrated horizontally using organ-system integration and integrated vertically with module topics developing from basic anatomical structures, to functions and eventually integrating with basic clinical skills. For the second year program, horizontal integration is again through organ system integration and vertical integration is evident in the normal to pathologic to common clinical signs and symptoms sequencing of topics and teaching-learning events. The third and fourth year programs are naturally integrated with the use of clinical specialties as organizing framework.
“The needs of the health system should shape the way in which the health workforce is educated — not the other way around.”
World Health Organization, 2011.
In 2010, the Global Consensus for Social Accountability of Medical Schools was laid with 10 strategic directions that can guide BUCM to “respond to current and future health needs and challenges in society; reorient their education, research and service priorities accordingly; strengthen governance and partnerships with other stakeholders; and use evaluation and accreditation to assess performance and impact” (5). The World Health Organization concurs with the Social Accountability principles and came out with further guidelines and processes.
The development of BU’s medical program is unique in two-ways. First, curriculum designers were advised to take into consideration Bicol region’s health data in developing problems and case triggers for PBL and in prioritizing contents for lectures and didactic sessions and clinical skills and procedures for early clinical skills training and exposure. Second, the offering of the parallel track on disaster management reflects the commitment to develop physicians who can prepare Bicol’s community for long term disaster preparedness and management.D. Innovative
Innovation is not limited to choice of teaching-learning strategies but also in the way courses are organized and integrated. The decision to use innovation was influenced by the school’s strong adherence to more active students’ participation in the teaching-learning process.
Technology is very much a part now of all aspects of education and training compared to about two decades ago when both education hardware and software are only for well-funded schools and students. Now, faculty and students can have access to almost any material using affordable hardware and open source software. The BU Medical program incorporates in its design optimum use of e-technology for teaching, research and communication.
BUCM will make use of IT as computer hardware will be installed in the proposed virtual library. It will seek open-access electronic materials such as journals and will participate in transnational exchange of knowledge. Global educational resources will be tapped. It will study possible linkages with institutions such as the Training for Health Equity Network (THEnet) and Towards Unity for Health (TUFH) which are both involved in medical education for the marginalized population and the rural areas.
F. Learner- centered
The College of Medicine considers medical students as responsible adult-learners and are expected to play active role in their own education. The opportunity to be active are made available to them through the various innovations utilized in the medical education program.G. Outcomes-based (OBE)
Consistent with OBE, the methods in the College will not require any particular style of teaching or learning although certain methods such as small group discussions and problem-based learning maybe employed. Students will demonstrate what they have learned of required skills and content in terms of measurable competencies.
The curriculum of the BU CM is derived from the profound understanding of the population need. The professional competencies of graduates will attempt to match this need to their future roles, hence, the learning program follows a more realistic path grounded on what is relevant and sustainable.
At the end of the 5-year period, the doctor graduates shall exhibit characteristics of a 5-star physician (health service provider, teacher, researcher, manager and leader and social mobilizer) imbued with attributes of being a servant leader, systems & strategic thinker, nationalist, clinically proficient, globally competitive and locally relevant practitioner, health emergency and disaster management specialist.
The MD-MPA program aims to produce graduates:
- who embody the attributes of a 5-star physician- clinically profieicient, dedicated health educator, effective health manager and committed to life-long learning, community service and research;
- who demonstrate transformative qualities that would impact change in the health system to become responsive, relevant and effective, and;
- who will be leaders in disaster preparedness, response and management.
The MD-MPA curriculum will enable the students to:
- Acquire sufficient knowledge, skills and attitudes that will make them proficient in both clinical and community medicine including alternative health care; acquire attributes on leadership and imbibe interest in research and community education;
- Develop desirable transformative qualities of being nationalistic, servant-leaders and systems and strategic thinker, that would equip them to initiate improvements in the health system and the health of the people, and;
- Develop skills in management of health emergency, disaster preparedness and response including advanced abilities to contribute in the body of knowledge in the area of Health Emergency and Disaster Management.
Level IAt the end of Level 1 the students should be able to identify the normal human individual utilizing a comprehensive knowledge and skills of the structures and functions of the human body in various stages of life. Learners should also correlate phenomenon of health and illness in the individual, family and community guided by their understanding of evidence-based medicine and health systems.
At the end of Level 2 the students should have a comprehensive skills in etiopathogenesis and pathophysiology of the rational diagnosis and management of disorders in the different organ systems. The context is the individual, the family and the community with integration of CAM approaches and modalities.
At the end of Level 3, the students should demonstrate ability to utilize evidence in solving clinical and community problems, formulate treatment/management plans based on sound diagnosis combining knowledge in conventional and alternative health care and perform holistic interventions including rehabilitative, preventive and promotive measures.
At the end of the junior Internship (Medical Clerkship, 4th Year), students shall have demonstrated beginning proficiency in the professional roles of a 5-star physician such as clinician, health educator/teacher, epidemiologist/researcher, manager and community mobilizer. The internship will immerse the learner in the clinical and community setting to acquire beginning competencies of a medical doctor.
At the end of the senior internship (5th Year), students shall have demonstrated advanced knowledge and skills in all of the 10 competencies building towards 5-star physician. The Senior Internship will provide learners the opportunity to develop proficiency in the roles and functions of a medical doctor in various setting including advance competencies in Health Emergency and Disaster Management.